Bibliography

Any historian of the Russian intelligence and security services is bedeviled by questions of quantity and quality of information. This bibliography is a selection of relevant and important books and articles mostly in English and Russian that deal with the tsarist, Soviet, and post-Soviet Russian intelligence and security services. It does not include histories and memoirs unless they deal with the services directly. It also does not include general Soviet/Russian histories, military histories, or many of the Cold War memoirs by participants on both sides.
Until 1991, much of the information on the Soviet services and the most important cases came from dubious sources. Literally thousands of books have been written on the subject of Soviet intelligence—many of which are quite frankly useless to the modern scholar. For example, 12 books were written in Great Britain between 1953 and 1977 about the Soviet agents Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess: most of them frightfully inaccurate. Two of Kim Philby’s wives have written memoirs. Even much of the “factual” material scholars must rely on remains questionable: scholars have recently been able to establish that Stalin was born in 1878 not 1879, and that Nikolai Yezhov was born in Lithuania, not St. Petersburg. The death dates for many eminent Chekists are also in doubt.
Information on the number of victims of the Joseph Stalin era also remains a subject for bitter debate among scholars, as does the relationship between the Soviet security services and left-wing movements in the Western democracies. A French scholar, Stephanie Courtois, noted in a history of the crimes of communism that we have far less evidence of the crimes of Lenin and Stalin, and almost no photographs or films of the terrors of their rule: “Alas, we have only a handful of rare archival photographs of the Gulag. There are no photographs of dekulakization or of the famine. . . . The victorious powers could at least photograph and film the thousands of bodies found at Bergen-Belsen. . . . No such record exists in the Communist world, where terror has been organized in strictest secrecy” (Courtois, 36).
Evidence for this study had to be carefully reviewed, and this bibliography therefore had to exclude many interesting books. For example, there have been over a dozen books in Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Russian, and German on the riots in the Soviet labor camps in 1953. Nevertheless, for readers interested in the subject, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Archipelago (1974) and Anne Applebaum’s Gulag: A History (2003) still provide the best accounts. Likewise, Pavel Sudoplatov’s Special Tasks (1994) is listed, but not his Spets operatsii (1995) and Razvedka i Kreml (1996), which are basically Russian versions of the English best-seller.
In the last 15 years, it has been possible to study the tsarist police and intelligence service from archives in the West and Russia. While some of the Russian archives may have been adulterated or purged during the Soviet period, historians are now far better able to gauge the effectiveness of the Okhrana’s operations against the revolutionary parties, and the professionalism of the tsarist military intelligence service. Another important trove of Okhrana material can be found in the Hoover Institute archives in Stanford, California. While there have been a staggering number of books on Soviet history since the dawn of the Cold War, few studies address the role of the security services in Soviet domestic and foreign policies. There are hundreds of memoirs of the inmates of forced labor camps as well as almost as many from defectors and émigrés. But general histories of the Soviet Union have little time or space for the security police, and few even try to define the role of the Soviet services in protecting the Communist Party and the Soviet state. As one outstanding Kremlinologist wrote near the end of the Cold War: “The Soviet security police, or KGB, looms as an uncertain variable for scholars, mainly because we have no commonly accepted conceptual framework to explain its role in the system. The KGB has never received much scholarly attention in the West . . . the dearth of serious scholarly research on the KGB has left a deep gap in how the Soviet system works and what factors influence Soviet decision making” (Knight, 1988, xvi).
There are some exceptional monographs on Soviet and post-Soviet intelligence: Amy Knight’s Beria: Stalin’s First Lieutenant, Michael Parrish’s The Lesser Terror, and Robert Conquest’s The Great Terror and Inside Stalin’s Secret Police have enriched us with their research, writing, and courage. Conquest’s books on repression, beginning with The Great Terror, forced both the academic community and the Western intelligentsia to consider the costs of the Soviet experiment. Revisionist histories in the 1980s tried to minimize repression and the number of victims, but the opening of the Soviet archives after 1991 showed that it was Conquest rather than his critics who was closer to the truth. Robert W. Stephan’s recent Stalin’s Secret War: Soviet Counterintelligence against the Nazis (2003), which mined Soviet, former Wehrmacht, and American records, is the first Western monograph on the “invisible front,” the intense battle between the Soviet and German secret services. Two recent histories of the first days of World War II have also successfully mined Soviet archives: David Murphy, What Stalin Knew: The Enigma of Barbarossa (2005), and Constantine Pleshakov, Stalin’s Folly (2005), are the best accounts in English of Stalin’s intelligence failure in 1941. Murphy’s book also uses GRU material effectively, detailing the operations of illegals in Europe and Japan.
The status of Russian archives has been a matter of concern to researchers and human rights activists. Many of the KGB archives were reportedly destroyed in 1989–1991. According to a press release, the KGB burned 583 archival files pertaining to Andrei Sakharov. Since the end of the Cold War some of the former Soviet archives have been opened and are being mined by scholars—Russian and Western. The Cold War International History Project, Louise Shelley’s Policing Soviet Society, and Anne Applebaum’s Gulag on the forced labor camps show what can be achieved by scrupulous research. Michael Parish’s The Lesser Terror, on the role of repression in Soviet politics after the Great Terror, is one of the best examples of how to mine and refine material from the Russian archives. There are several new books in English and Russian on Stalin’s relationships with the secret police based on archival research. Donald Rayfield’s Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him (2004) is a passionate account of Stalin’s personal and professional relationship with his security chieftains. Marc Jansen and Nikolai Petrov’s biography of Nikolai Yezhov is a particularly good monograph. Material in the Russian Soviet archives has also allowed Western and Russian historians to better understand the intelligence war between the Cheka and the foreign intelligence services. Archivists of the Federal Security Service (FSB) have written three histories of Russian special service operations in the Great Patriotic War. V. S. Khristoforov, the service chief archivist, used over 100 top secret documents to write Lubyanka in the Days of the Battle of Moscow (2002). The same team of archivists and historians has also written a history of Smersh. The new generation of archivists and scholars is to be congratulated for taking on difficult subjects such as the Red Terror and collaboration with the Germans during the early days of the war. There remain, however, important limitations for scholars of this field: many of the archives have not been opened or are only available by the whim of the archivists. The archives of the SVR, the FSB, and the GRU generally remain closed, though some documents have been released and published in documentary collections and on websites. While more is known about the Stalinist and post-Stalinist intelligence and security services, there are still major lacunae.
The role of Soviet intelligence in the United States and the United Kingdom remains a contentious issue. The best summary of the debate within academe is John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr’s In Denial (2003). There are two recent bibliographies of Elizabeth Bentley, the “Red Spy Queen,” as well as case studies of Judith Coplon and Harry Dexter White. Ethel Rosenberg’s granddaughter has recently produced a film biography of her grandmother. The Hiss and Rosenberg cases remain the subject of polemics and histories. The collection of Venona messages released in 1995—more than 2,400 decrypted and partially decrypted Soviet intelligence messages—indicates that Moscow believed most of the infamous Cold War spies were in fact Soviet agents. Some historians have continued to challenge this judgment, and it seems likely that the debate over Soviet espionage will continue.
Post–Cold War memoirs by former Soviet intelligence officers, diplomats, and politicians have added both heat and light to a history of the Soviet Union. There are books by Beria’s son as well as a number of men and women who survived the court of Stalin. Most of these books, while informative, contain some factual errors and do not cite specific documents to allow scholars to check specific claims. There are a number of good books by former Soviet intelligence officers in English and Russian. The FSB website (www.fsb.ru.) contains an excellent annotated bibliography for the scholar of Soviet intelligence. Moreover, Christopher Andrews has written several monographs and two general histories of the KGB’s foreign intelligence operations using recent Soviet defectors. Nevertheless, we still lack a good institutional history of the GRU, good biographies of Viktor Abakumov, Yuri Andropov, Aleksandr Shelepin, and other important security chiefs, as well as a new look at Soviet national security decision-making.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, a number of excellent websites have appeared on the Soviet intelligence and security services. The Federation of Atomic Scientists Intelligence Research Program (www.fas.org/irp) provides useful though dated information on the Russian services. The Russian intelligence services have their own “informal” website (www.agentura.com) in both Russian and English. Essays in the Russian language on this website provide detailed information on the organization, chronology, and personnel of the Soviet and post-Soviet intelligence and security services. Both the Russian counterintelligence and foreign intelligence services have their own websites (www.fsb.ru.gov and www.svr.ru.gov), which contain sanitized biographies of heroes and agents and accounts of operations against enemies foreign and domestic.
A website with detailed and accurate information on the Stalinist services is managed by Memorial, a Russian human rights organization (www.memorial .com). One entire section of this website is given over to a detailed history of the NKVD between 1934 and 1941, “Kto Rukovoditel NKVD, 1934–1941” (Who Led the NKVD, 1934–1941). The section includes detailed bibliographies of more than 500 senior security and intelligence officers. There are a number of good English, German, Polish, and Russian websites on forced labor camps: among the more interesting are the Open Societies Archives on the gulag system (www.osa.ceu.ru/gulag), a German site on the northern camps (www.solovki.org), and the Katyn website (www.electronicmuseum.ca/ Poland-WW2/katyn). A good website on Russian strategy and tactics in the Great Patriotic War is Russian Battlefield (www.battlefield.ru), which contains scores of documents in Russian and a few in English on Soviet intelligence in 1940–1945.
The best academic websites on intelligence during the Cold War are the Cold War International History Project (www.cwihp.si) and the Harvard Project on Cold War Studies (www.fas.Harvard.edu/Bibliographyhpsws). Both contain a number of documents from the Russian archives and some outstanding analysis of the role of the Soviet services in both foreign intelligence and Soviet power politics. The Worldwide Socialist Web (www.wsww.org) has an outstanding oral history program, and it often has a number of editorials and interviews with the remaining survivors of the Comintern and Trotsky’s Fourth International.
Western intelligence and security services now all have websites, which contain details about operations against the Soviet intelligence services and analysis of the Soviet threat during the Cold War. The National Counterintelligence Center (www.nacic.org) has a four-volume history of American counterintelligence on its site, including detailed histories of many famous counterintelligence cases. On the CIA site (www.cia.gov), the Center for the Study of Intelligence publishes studies by in-house historians and former intelligence officers, as well as by former Russian bureaucrats and intelligence officers. Among the best of the CIA in-house historians is Ben Fischer, who has produced a study of the Okhrana and an account of the Katyn massacre. The National Security Agency (www.nsa.gov) has published all the Venona messages, as well as essays by the men and women who worked on this signals intelligence problem.
The bibliography entries are divided into several categories, presented in the following order:
Published Archival Material / General Histories / Memoirs and Biographies / Tsarist Regime and Its Security Services / The Redl Affair / General Histories of Russian and Soviet Intelligence Services / The Soviet Holocaust / Soviet Security Services and Governance / The Gulag and Forced Labor Camps / Lenin and the Development of the Cheka/GPU, 1917–1924 / Stalin’s Secret Services and Their Foreign Intelligence Operations, 1924–1953 / Secret Services Operations in Western Europe, 1924–1953 / Soviet Operations in Asia and Australia, 1920s–1950s / Soviet Intelligence and Nuclear Weapons / Soviet Intelligence in the United States, 1920s–1950s / The Great Patriotic War / Operation Barbarossa / Partisan War / Soviet Services in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States, 1944–1953 / Cold War Crises / Afghanistan / Berlin, 1945–1989 / Cuba, 1959–1990 / Poland, 1956–1990 / Prague, 1948–1990 / The KGB, 1954–1991 / KGB versus the Western Intelligence Services, 1954–1991 / The KGB and Human Rights: The Dissidents / Russian Intelligence, 1991 to the Present
PUBLISHED ARCHIVAL MATERIAL
◘ Andrews, Christopher, and Oleg Gordievsky, eds. Instructions from the Center: Top Secret Files on KGB Foreign Operations 19751985. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1993.
◘ ———. More Instructions from the Center. London: Frank Cass, 1993.
◘ Central Intelligence Agency. The Rote Kapelle: The CIA’s History of Soviet Intelligence and Espionage Networks in Western Europe, 19361945. Washington, D.C.: University Publications of America, 1984.
◘ ———. “Annual Report to Congress on the Safety and Security of Russian Nuclear Facilities and Military Forces.” Washington, D.C.: National Intelligence Council. May 2004. www.internet.cia/nic/Specialrussiannuke04.
Cold War International History Project Bulletins. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center, 1990.
Khronika tekushchikh sobytii (Chronicle of Current Events). Helsinki Group. www.memoria.ru.
◘ Khveniuk, O. V. Stalinskoe politburo-30e gody: Sbornik dokumentov (The Stalinist Politburo in the 1930s: Collection of Documents). Moscow: AIR O-XX, 1995.
◘ Knight, Amy. “Russian Archives: Opportunities and Obstacles.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 12, no. 3 (1999).
Leningradskiy martirolog, 19371938 (List of People Martyred in Leningrad, 1937–1938). St. Petersburg: Akademiya, 1995.
◘ National Security Agency. Introductory History of VENONA and Guide to the Translations. Fort Meade, Md.: NSA, 1995.
Organy gosudartvennoi bezopasnosti SSR v V.O.V.: Sbornik dokumentov (Organs of State Security of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War: Collection of Documents). Moscow: SVR, 1995.
Politicheskie protsessy 3050 godov (Political Trials of the 1930s to 1950s). Moscow: Nevka, 1991.
◘ Rahr, Alexander. A Biographic Dictionary of 100 Leading Soviet Officials. Denver, Colo.: Westview, 1991.
Rasstrelniye spiski, Moskva 19371941 (Execution Lists: Moscow, 1937– 1941). Moscow: Memorial, 2000.
◘ Razumov, A. Ya. Leningradskiy martirolog (Leningrad Martyrology). Vols. 1–4. St. Petersburg: Nevka, 2002.
◘ Romanian Academy, National Institute for the Study of Totalitarianism. Totalitarian Archives. Vols. 1 and 2. Bucharest, 2002.
◘ Samolis, T. V., ed. Veterany vneshnei razvedki Rossii: Kratkiy biograficheskiy spravochnik (Veterans of Russian Foreign Intelligence: A Short Bibliographical Account). Moscow: SVR, 1995.
Sovetskaya voennaya entsiklopediia. Moscow: Voenizdat, 1978.
Stalin’s Special Files. Archives of Contemporary Russian History. University of Pittsburgh, Center for the Study of Russia and the Soviet Union. Trotsky Archives. Houghton Library, Harvard University. U.S. Congress. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Amerasia Papers: A Clue to the Catastrophe in China. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979.
◘ ———. Soviet Security Services 19641970: A Selected Bibliography of Soviet Publications with Some Additional Titles from Other Sources. 92nd Congress, 1st Session. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972.
◘ ———. The Wennerstrom Case: How It Touched the United States and NATO. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1964.
◘ U.S. Department of State. Soviet Active Measures, Special Report 110. Bureau of Public Affairs, September 1985.
VENONA: Decrypted Soviet Intelligence Service Telegrams. www.nsa.gov.8080/.
GENERAL HISTORIES
◘ Andrew, Christopher. Her Majesty’s Secret Service: The Making of the British Intelligence Community. New York: Viking, 1986.
◘ Berlin, Isaiah. The Soviet Mind. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2004.
◘ Conquest, Robert. Reflections on a Ravaged Country. New York: Norton, 2000.
◘ Courtois, Stephanie et al. The Black Book of Communism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.
◘ Cram, Cleveland. “Of Moles and Mole Hunters.” Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1993.
◘ Deacon, Richard. The French Secret Service. London: Grafton, 1990.
◘ Dunlop, John. The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Union. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993.
◘ Figes, Orlando. A People’s Tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution. New York: Viking, 1996.
◘ Fitzpatrick, Sheela. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
◘ Furet, Francois. The Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism in the Twentieth Century. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1997.
◘ Hammond, T. T., ed. The Anatomy of Communist Takeovers. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1975.
◘ Herspring, Dale. The Soviet High Command, 19671989: Personalities and Politics. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1990.
◘ Hinsley, F. H., and C. A. G. Simkins. British Intelligence in the Second World War. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1990.
◘ Hutchings, Raymond. Soviet Security and Non-Security. Tototwa, N.J.: Barnes and Noble, 1988.
◘ Khvenyuk, Oleg. Politburo: Mikhanizmy politicheskoi vlasti v 1930e gody (The Politburo: Mechanisms of Soviet Power in the 1930s). Moscow: ROSSPEN, 1996.
◘ Malia, Martin. The Soviet Tragedy. New York: Free Press, 1994.
◘ Mayer, Arno J. The Furies: Violence and Terror in the French and Russian Revolutions. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000.
◘ McDermott, Kevin, and Jeremy Agnew. The Comintern: A History of International Communism from Lenin to Stalin. New York: St. Martin’s, 1997.
◘ Merridal, Catherine. Nights of Stone: Death and Memory in Twentieth Century Russia. London: Granta, 2000.
◘ Overy, Richard. Interrogations: The Nazi Elite in Allied Hands, 1945. New York: Viking, 2001.
◘ Parker, John W. The Kremlin in Transition: From Brezhnev to Chernenko. Boston: Unwin, 1995.
◘ Pipes, Richard. Russia under the Bolshevik Regime. New York: Random House, 1994.
◘ Porch, Douglas. The French Secret Service. New York: Farrar, Straus and Geroux, 1995.
◘ Pryce-Jones, David. The War That Never Was: The Fall of the Soviet Empire, 19851991. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1995.
◘ Reddaway, Peter, and Dmitri Glinski. The Tragedy of Russia’s Reforms: Market Bolshevism against Democracy. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 2001.
◘ Volensky, Michael. Nomenklatura. London: Bodley Head, 1984.
◘ Volkogonov, Dmitri. Autopsy for An Empire: The Seven Leaders Who Built the Soviet Regime. New York: Free Press, 1998.
◘ Weitz, Eric D. A Century of Genocide. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003.
◘ West, Rebecca. The New Meaning of Treason. New York: Viking, 1964.
◘ Wright, Susan, ed. Biological Warfare and Disarmament. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.
Memoirs and Biographies
◘ Amis, Martin. Koba the Dread: Laughter and the Twenty Million. New York: Talk-Miramax Books, 2002.
◘ Arbatov, Georgi. The System: An Insider’s Life in Soviet Politics. New York: Times Books, 1992.
◘ Beria, Sergo. Beria My Father: Inside Stalin’s Kremlin. London: Duckworth, 2003.
◘ Bissell, Richard J. Reflections of a Cold Warrior: From Yalta to the Bay of Pigs. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996.
◘ Bodin, Valery. Ten Years That Shook the World. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
◘ Bullock, Alan. Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives. New York: Knopf, 1991.
◘ Chernayev, Anatoly. My Six Years with Gorbachev. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000.
◘ Chuev, Feliks. Molotov Remembers: Inside Kremlin Politics. London: Ivan R. Dee, 1993.
◘ Cohen, Stephen F. Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution, 18881938. New York: Vintage, 1973.
◘ Dallin, Alexander, ed. Dmitrov and Stalin, 19341943: Letters from the Soviet Archives. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
◘ Deutscher, Isaac. The Prophet Armed: Trotsky 18791921. London: Oxford University Press, 1954.
◘ ———. The Prophet Unarmed: Trotsky 19211929. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.
◘ ———. The Prophet Outcast: Trotsky 19291940. London: Oxford University Press, 1963
◘ Djilas, Milovan. Conversations with Stalin. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, 1962.
◘ Dobrynin, Anatoly. In Confidence: Moscow’s Ambassador to Six Cold War Presidents. New York: Times Books, 1995.
◘ Gorbachev, Mikhail S. Memoirs. London: Doubleday, 1996.
◘ Gromov, Yevgeny. Stalin, vlast i iskusstvo (Stalin: Power and Art). Moscow: Respublika, 1998.
◘ Ilizarov, B. S. Tainaya zhizn Stalina (The Secret Life of Stalin). Moscow: Veche, 2002.
◘ Kaganovich, Lazar. Tak govoril Kaganovich (Thus Spoke Kaganovich). Moscow: Otechestvo, 1992.
Khrushchev Remembers. Boston: Little Brown, 1970.
Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament. Boston: Little Brown, 1974.
◘ Lih, Lars T., ed. Stalin’s Letters to Molotov, 19251936. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995.
◘ Medvedev, Roy, and Zhores Medvedev. The Unknown Stalin: His Life, Death, and Legacy. New York: Overlook, 2004.
◘ Malenkov, A. G. O moem ottse: Georgii Malenkov (Concerning My Father: Georgii Malenkov). Moscow: NTTS tekhnoekos, 1992.
◘ Montefiore, Simon Sebag. Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. New York: Knopf, 2004.
◘ Novikov, Viktor. Beria: Konets karierie (Beria: The End of His Career). Moscow: Polizdat, 1991.
◘ Radzinsky, Edward. Stalin. New York: Doubleday, 1996.
◘ Overy, Richard. The Dictators: Hitler’s German, Stalin’s Russia. New York: Norton, 2004.
◘ Sagdeev, Roald Z. The Making of a Soviet Scientist. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1994.
◘ Service, Robert. Lenin. New York: Belknap, 2002.
◘ Shevchenko, Arkadi. Breaking with Moscow. New York: Ballentine, 1985.
◘ Simonov, Konstantin. Glazami chelovka moyevo pokoleniya (Through the Eyes of a Man of My Generation). Moscow: Kniga, 1989.
◘ Volkogonov, Dmitry. Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy. New York: Prima, 1992.
◘ ———. Lenin and New Biography. New York: Free Press, 1992.
◘ Yeltsin, Boris. Against the Grain: An Autobiography. New York: Summit, 1990.
TSARIST REGIME AND ITS SECURITY SERVICES
◘ Churkarev, A. G. Tainaya polititsiya Nikolai I (Secret Politics of Nicholas I). Yaroslav: Pechati Dvor, 2002.
◘ Elwood, R. C. Roman Malinovsky: A Life without a Cause. Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Partners, 1977.
◘ Fischer, Ben B. Okhrana: The Paris Operations of the Russian Imperial Police. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1997.
◘ Gapon, G. The Story of My Life. London: George Bell and Sons, 1905.
◘ Geifman, Anna. Thou Shall Kill: Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia, 18941917. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.
◘ Kennan, George. Siberia and the Exile System. New York: Praeger, 1970.
◘ Koropotkin, Peter. In Russian and French Prisons. London: Ward and Downey, 1887.
◘ La Porte, Maurice. Histoire de l’Okhranaka police secrete des tsars, 18801917. Paris: Payot, 1935.
◘ Nicolajevsky, Boris. Aseff, the Spy. New York: Doubleday, 1934.
◘ Orlovsky, Daniel T. The Limits of Reform: The Ministry of Internal Affairs, 18021881. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981.
◘ Pipes, Richard. The Degaev Affair. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003.
◘ Plougin, Vladimir. Russian Intelligence Services. Vol. 1: The Early Years. Trans. Gennady Kashkov. New York: Algora, 2000.
◘ Radzinsky, Edward. The Last Tsar: The Life and Death of Nicholas II. New York: Doubleday, 2002.
◘ Raeff, Marc. The Well-Ordered Police State: Social and Institutional Change through Law in the Germanies and Russia 16001800. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983.
◘ Rubenstein, Richard E. Comrade Valentine: The True Story of Azev the Spy: The Most Dangerous Man in Russia at the Time of the Last Tsars. New York: Harcourt, 1994.
◘ Rudd, Charles A., and Sergei Stepanov. Fontanka 16: The Tsarist Secret Police. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1999. Expanded from Sergei Stepanov, Fontanka 16. Moscow, 1994.
◘ Sablinsky, Walter. The Road to Bloody Sunday: Father Gapon and the St. Petersburg Massacre. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976.
◘ Savinsky, Boris. Memoirs of a Terrorist. New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1925.
◘ Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, David H. “Tsarist Codebreaking: Some Background and Some Examples.” Cryptologia 22, no. 4 (1998).
◘ Schleifman, Nurit. Undercover Agents in the Russian Revolutionary Movement: The SR Party, 19021914. London: Macmillan, 1988.
◘ Schneiderman, Jeremiah. The Tsarist Government and the Labor Movement: Zubatovshchina. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.
◘ Smith, Edward Ellis. “The Okhrana”: The Russian Department of Police: A Bibliography. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institute, 1967.
◘ Vasilyev, A. T. The Okhrana: The Russian Secret Police. London: George G. Harrap, 1930.
◘ Venturi, Franco. Roots of Revolution: A History of the Populist and Socialist Movements in Nineteenth Century Russia. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1960.
◘ Wolfe, Bertram D. Three Who Made a Revolution. New York: Dial, 1948.
◘ Zuckerman, Frederic S. The Tsarist Police in Russian Society, 18801917. New York: New York University Press, 1996.
The Redl Affair
◘ Alekseev, Mikhail. “Agent No.25. ”Sovershenno Sekret no. 8 (1993).
◘ Asprey, Robert. The Panther’s Feast. London: Jonathan Cape, 1959.
◘ Deutsch, Harold. “Sidelights on the Redl Case: Russian Intelligence on the Eve of the Great War.” Intelligence and National Security 4, no. 4 (1989).
◘ Milshtein, M. “Delo polkovnika Redlya (The Colonel Redl Affair).” Voennoistoricheskiy zhurnal no. 1 (1966).
◘ Schindler, John R. “Redl—Spy of the Century.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 3 (2005).
GENERAL HISTORIES OF RUSSIAN AND SOVIET INTELLIGENCE SERVICES
◘ Albats, Eugenia. The State within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia, Past, Present, and Future. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994.
◘ Andrews, Christopher, and Oleg Gordievsky. Inside the KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev. New York: Harpers, 1986.
◘ Andrews, Christopher, and Vasili Mitrokin. The Mitrokhin Archives and the Secret History of the KGB. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
◘ Azrael, Jeremy. The KGB in Kremlin Politics. Los Angeles, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 1989.
◘ Ball, Desmond. Soviet Signals Intelligence (SIGINT). Canberra: Australian National University, 1989.
◘ Brown, Anthony Cave, and Charles B. Mac Donald. On a Field of Red: The Communist International and the Coming of World War II. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1981.
◘ Burgess, William H., ed. Inside SPETZNAZ: Soviet Special Operations, a Critical Analysis. Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1990.
◘ Conquest, Robert. Inside Stalin’s Secret Police: NKVD Politics 19361939. London: Macmillan, 1985.
◘ Dallin, David J. Soviet Espionage. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1952.
◘ Deacon, Richard. A History of the Russian Secret Services. London: Frederick, Muller, 1972.
◘ Deriabin, Peter. Inside Stalin’s Kremlin. Washington: Brassey’s, 1998.
◘ Deriabin, Peter, and T. H. Bagley. The KGB: Masters of the Soviet Union. New York: Hippocrene, 1990.
◘ Dziak, John J. Chekisty: A History of the KGB. Lexington, Mass.: Heath, 1988.
◘ Hingley, Ronald. The Russian Secret Police: Muscovite, Imperial, and Soviet Political Security Operations. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.
KGB vchera, sevodnya, zavtra (The KGB Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow). Moscow: Glasnost, 1996.
◘ Knight, Amy. The KGB: Police and Politics in the Soviet Union. Boston, Mass.: Allen and Unwin, 1988.
◘ Kokurin, A. I., and N. V. Petrov, eds. Lubyanka: VChK-OGPU-NKVD-NKGBMGB-MVD-KGB. Spravochnik (Lubyanka: VChK-OGPU-NKVD-NKGBMGB-MVD-KGB, Reference Book). Moscow: Memorial, 2003.
◘ Kolpakadi, D. P., and D. P. Prokhorov. Imperiya GRU Ocherki rossiiskoi voennoi razvedki. (The GRU Empire: Outline of Russian Military Intelligence). Moscow: Olma, 1999.
◘ ———. Vneshnaya razvedka Rossii (The Foreign Intelligence Services of Russia). Moscow: Olma, 2001.
◘ Levytsky, Boris. The Uses of Terror: The Soviet Secret Police, 19171970. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1972.
◘ Lure, V. M., and V. Ya. Kochik. GRU: Dela i liudi (The GRU: Operations and People). St. Petersburg: Neva, 2002.
◘ Mitrokhin, Vasili. KGB Lexicon: A Handbook of Chekist Terminology. London: Frank Cass, 2001.
◘ Myagakov, Aleksei. Inside the KGB: An Expose by an Officer of the Third Directorate. Richmond, U.K.: Foreign Affairs, 1986.
◘ Parrish, Michael. Soviet Security and Intelligence Organizations, 19171990: A Biographical Dictionary and Review of the Literature in English. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1992.
◘ Pravdin, A. “Inside the CPSU Central Committee.” Survey 20, no. 4 (1974).
◘ Rayfield, David. Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him. New York: Random House, 2004.
◘ Rocca, Raymond, and John Dziak. Bibliography on Soviet Intelligence and Security Services. Denver, Colo.: Westview, 1985.
◘ Rosenfeldt, Niels Erik. Stalin’s Special Departments. Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzels Forlag, 1989.
◘ Shelley, Louise. Policing Soviet Society. New York: Routledge, 1997.
◘ Shultz, Richard H., and Roy Godson. Dezinformatsia: Active Measures in Soviet Strategy. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1984.
◘ Suvorov, Victor. Soviet Military Intelligence. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1984.
◘ ———. Spetznaz: The Story behind the Soviet SAS. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1987.
◘ Tatu, Michel. Power in the Kremlin. New York: Viking, 1968.
◘ Thomas, Paul. Le KGB en Belgique. Brussels: J. M. Collet, 1987.
◘ Wolin, Simon, and Robert Slusser. The Soviet Secret Police. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1957.
◘ Wolton, Thierry. Le KGB en France. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1986.
THE SOVIET HOLOCAUST
Soviet Security Services and Governance
◘ Agabetkov, G. S. GPU: Zapiski chekista (The GPU: Notes of a Chekist). Berlin: Sterla, 1930.
◘ ———. Cheka za robotoi (The Cheka at Work). Berlin: Strela, 1931.
◘ Antonov-Ovsyenko, Anton. The Time of Stalin. New York: Harper and Row, 1980.
◘ ———. Beria. Moscow: AST, 1999.
◘ Bazhanov, Boris. Vospominaniya byshego sekretariya Stalina (Memoirs of Stalin’s Former Secretary). Paris: Tretya Lolna, 1980. Originally published as Avec Stalin dans le Kremlin. Paris: Les editions de France, 1930.
◘ Brent, Jonathan, and Vladimir P. Naumov. Stalin’s Last Crime: The Plot against the Jewish Doctors, 19481953. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.
◘ Bugai, L. N. L. BeriaI. Stalinu, “Soglasno vashemu ukazaniu” (L. Beria to J. Stalin, “In Accordance with Your Instructions”). Moscow: AIRO XX, 1995.
◘ Chase, William J. Enemies within the Gates: The Comintern and Stalinist Repression, 19341939. New Haven, Conn.: Yale: University Press, 2002.
◘ Conquest, Robert. The Harvest of Sorrows. London: Oxford University Press, 1986.
◘ ———. Stalin and Kirov’s Murder. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
◘ ———. The Great Terror. London: Oxford University Press, 1990.
◘ Davies, Sarah. Popular Opinion in Stalin’s Russia: Terror, Propaganda, and Dissent, 19341941. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
◘ Deriabin, Peter S. Inside Stalin’s Kremlin. Herndon, Va.: Brassey’s, 1998.
◘ Druzhnikov, Yuri. Informant 001: The Myth of Pavlik Morozov. London: Transaction, 1997.
◘ Fainsod, Merle. Smolensk under Soviet Rule. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958. Republished with an introduction by Jerry Hough as How the Soviet Union Is Governed. Harvard University Press, 1979.
◘ Garros, Veronique, et al. Intimacy and Terror: Soviet Diaries of the 1930s. New York: New Press, 2000.
◘ Getty, J. Arch, and Oleg V. Naumov. The Road to Terror: Stalin and the Self-Destruction of the Old Bolsheviks. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
◘ Graziosi, Andrea. The Great Soviet Peasant War: Bolsheviks and Peasants, 19171933. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
◘ Jansen, Marc, and Nikolai Petrov. Stalin’s Loyal Executioner: People’s Commissar Nikolai Ezhov. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institute, 2002.
◘ Klenyuk, Oleg. 1937: Stalin, NKVD, i sovetskoe obshchestvo (The Year 1937: Stalin, the NKVD, and Soviet Society). Moscow: Republika, 1992.
◘ Knight, Amy. Who Killed Kirov: The Kremlin’s Greatest Mystery. New York: Hill and Wang, 1999.
◘ Kopelev, Lev. The Education of a True Believer. London: Woldwood House, 1981.
◘ Levytsky, Boris. The Stalinist Terror in the Thirties: Documents from the Soviet Press. Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institute, 1974.
◘ Medvedev, Roy. Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism. New York: Knopf, 1972.
◘ Orlov, Alexander. The Secret History of Stalin’s Crimes. New York: Random House, 1953.
◘ Parrish, Michael. Stalin’s Secret War: Soviet Counterintelligence against the Nazis Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1996.
◘ Rogovin, Vadim Z. 1937: Stalin’s Year of Terror. New York: Mehring, 2003.
◘ Rubenstein, Joshua, ed. Stalin’s Secret Pogrom: The Postwar Inquisition of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.
◘ Schapiro, Leonard. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union. New York: Random House, 1960.
◘ Tucker, Robert. Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 19281941. New York, 1990.
◘ Tucker, Robert, and Stephen Cohen. The Great Purge Trials. New York: Grosset and Dunlop, 1965.
◘ Viola, Lynne. Peasant Rebels under Stalin: Collectivization and the Culture of Peasant Resistance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
◘ Vaksberg, Arkady. Stalin’s Prosecutor: The Life of Andrei Vyshinsky. New York: Grove and Weidenfeld, 1990.
◘ Yakovlev, Alexander. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2003.
◘ Zubkova, Elena. Russia after the War: Hopes, Illusions, and Disappointments. London: M. E. Sharpe, 1998.
The Gulag and Forced Labor Camps
◘ Applebaum, Anne. Gulag: A History. New York: Doubleday, 2003.
◘ Bacon, Edwin. The Gulag at War: Stalin’s Forced Labor Camp in Light of the Archives. New York: New York University Press, 1994.
◘ Bardach, Janusz, and Kathleen Gleeson. Man Is Wolf to Man. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
◘ Conquest, Robert. Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps. New York: Macmillan, 1978.
◘ Dallin, David J., and Boris I. Nicolaevesky. Forced Labor in the Soviet Union. London: Hollis and Carter, 1948.
◘ Ginzburg, Evgenia. Journey into the Whirlwind. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1967.
◘ ———. Within the Whirlwind. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1981.
◘ Gorbatov, A. A. Years off My Life. London: Oxford University Press, 1964.
◘ Gregory, Paul R., and Valey Lazarev, ed. The Economics of Forced Labor: The Gulag. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institute, 2003.
◘ Jakobson, Michael. Origin of the Gulag: The Soviet Prison Camp System, 19171934. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2002.
◘ Kokurin, Aleksandr, and Nikita Petrov. Gulag, 19181960. Moscow: Memorial, 2000.
◘ Kuusinen, Aino. The Rings of Destiny: Inside Soviet Russia from Lenin to Brezhnev. New York: St. Martin’s, 1974.
◘ Lengyel, Josif. Acta Sanctorum and Other Tales. London: Peter Owen, 1970.
◘ Malsagov, S. A. An Island in Hell: A Soviet Prison in the Far North. London: A. M. Philpot, 1926.
◘ Mandelstam, Nadezhda. Hope against Hope. New York: Athaneum, 1970.
◘ ———. Hope Abandoned. London: Collins, 1974.
◘ Roginsky, A. T. Sistema ispravitelno-trudovykh lagerie v SSSR, 19231960 (The System of Forced Labor Camps in the USSR, 1923–1960). Moscow: Avenia, 1999.
◘ Rossi, Jacques. Qu’elle etait belle cette Utopie! Paris: Le Cherche Midi Editeur, 2000.
◘ ———. Jacques le Francais: Pour memoire de goulag. Paris: Le Cherche Midi Editeur, 2002.
◘ Ruder, Cynthia A. Making History for Stalin: The Story of the Belomor Canal. Tallahassee: University of Florida Press, 1998.
◘ Shalamov, Varlan. Kolyma Tales. New York: Penguin, 1995.
◘ Shifrin, Avraham. The First Guidebook to the Prisons and Concentration Camps of the Soviet Union. New York: Bantam, 1982.
◘ Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. The Gulag Archipelago. Vols. 1–3. New York: Harper, 1972–1976.
◘ Stejner, Karlo. 7,000 jours en Siberie. Paris: Gallimard, 1983.
◘ Swianiewicz, S. Forced Labor and Economic Development: An Enquiry into the Experience of Soviet Industrialization. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.
◘ Vrantsev, N. N. Norilsk. Moscow: Nedra, 1969.
◘ Weissberg, Alex. Conspiracy of Silence. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1951.
LENIN AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHEKA/GPU, 1917-1924
◘ Akseneva, N. S., and V. S. Vasileva. Soldaty Dzerzhinskogo (Soldiers of Dzerzhinsky). Moscow: Kniga, 1977.
◘ Avrich, Paul. Krondsadt, 1921. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1991.
◘ Bennett, Gill. A Most Extraordinary and Mysterious Business: The Zinoviev Letter of 1924. Historian LRD No. 14. London: Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 1999.
◘ Brook-Shepherd, Gordon. The Iron Maze: The Western Secret Services and the Bolsheviks. London: Macmillan, 1999.
◘ Central Inelligence Agency. The Trust. Arlington, Va.: Security and Intelligence Foundation, 1989.
◘ Cook, Andrew. Ace of Spies: The Real Story of Sidney Reilly. London: Tempus, 2004.
◘ Danilov, V., and T. Shanin. Krestyanskoe vosstanie v Tambovskoi gubernii v 19191921 (The Peasant Rebellion in Tambov Province, 1919–1921). Tambov: Intertsentr, 1994.
◘ Debo, Richard K. “Lockhart Plot or Dzerzhinsky Plot?” Journal of Modern History 43, no. 3 (1971).
◘ Dzerzhinsky, F. E. Prison Diary and Letters. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959.
◘ Figes, Orlando. Peasant Russia, Civil War: The Volga Countryside in the Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
◘ Gerson, Lennard D. The Secret Police in Lenin’s Russia. Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 1976.
◘ Goncharov, A. K., ed. Iz istorii vserossiiskoi chrezvychainoi komissii, 19171921. (From the History of the Extraordinary Commission, 1917–1921). Moscow: Polizdat, 1958.
◘ Hill, George A. Go Spy Out the Land. London: Cassell, 1932.
◘ Leggett, George. The Cheka: Lenin’s Political Police. Oxford: Clarendon, 1981.
◘ Lockhart, Robert Bruce. Ace of Spies: A Biography of Sidney Reilly. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1967.
◘ ———. Memoirs of a British Agent. London: Putnam, 1932.
◘ Radkey, Oliver H. The Unknown Civil War in Soviet Russia: A Study of the Green Movement in the Tambov Region. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institute, 1976.
◘ Reed, John. Ten Days That Shook the World. New York: International Publishers, 1952.
◘ Serge, Victor. Memoirs of a Revolutionary: 19011941. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.
◘ Sokolov, N. A. The Sokolov Investigation of the Alleged Murder of the Russian Royal Family. New York: Robert Speller and Sons, 1971.
◘ Tishkov, A. V. Perviy Chekist (The First Chekist). Moscow: Voenizdat, 1968.
◘ Trotsky, Leon. My Life. London: Scribner, 1931.
◘ ———. History of the Russian Revolution. London: Scribner, 1931.
◘ Tsvygun, S. K. V. I. Lenin i Cheka: Sbornik dokumentov, 19171922gg (Lenin and the Cheka: Collection of Documents, 1917–1922). Moscow: Izdatelstvo Politicheskoi Literaturi, 1975.
◘ Vinogradov, V. K., et al. Delo Fani Kaplan ili kto strelyal v Lenina (The Fany Kaplan Affair or Who Shot Lenin). Moscow: Editions OOO XX-History, 2003.
◘ Volkogonov, Dmitry. Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary. New York: Free Press, 1995.
STALIN’S SECRET SERVICES AND THEIR FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS, 1924-1953
◘ Agabekov, Georgii. OGPU. New York: Brentano’s, 1931. Originally published as GPU: Zapiski Chekista.
◘ Costello, John, and Oleg Tsarev. Deadly Illusions. New York: Crown, 1993.
◘ Dallin, Alexander, and F. I. Firsov, eds. Dmitrov and Stalin 19341943. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 2000.
◘ Deriabin, Peter S. Inside Stalin’s Kremlin. New York: Brassey’s, 1998.
◘ Duff, William E. A Time for Spies: Theodore Stepanovich Maly and the Era of the Great Illegals. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt University Press, 2002.
◘ Gazar, Edward P. Alexander Orlov: The FBI’s KGB General. Chicago: Carroll and Graf, 2002.
◘ Gross, Babette. Munzenberg: A Political Biography. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1974.
◘ Hyde, Earl M. “Still Perplexed about Krivitsky.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 3 (2003).
◘ Kearn, Gary, and Nigel West. A Death in Washington: Walter G. Krivitsky and the Stalin Terror. New York: Enigma, 2003.
◘ Koch, Stephen. Double Lives. London: HarperCollins, 1995.
◘ Krivitsky, Walter. In Stalin’s Secret Service. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1939.
◘ Nicolaevsky, Boris I. Power and the Soviet Elite: The Letter of an Old Bolshevik and Other Essays. New York: Praeger, 1965.
◘ Orlov, Alexander. The Secret History of Stalin’s Crimes. New York: Random House, 1953.
◘ Poretsky, Elizabeth. Our Own People. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.
◘ Radosh, Ronald, Mary R. Habeck, and Grigory Sevostianov. Spain Betrayed: The Soviet Union and the Spanish Civil War. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.
◘ Romanov, A. I. Nights Are Longest There. Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1972.
◘ Stolyarov, Kirill. Golgopha (Golgotha). Moscow: 1991.
◘ Sudoplatov, Pavel. Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted WitnessA Soviet Spymaster. Boston: Little, Brown, 1994.
Secret Services Operations in Western Europe, 1924-1953
◘ Bovorik, Genrikh. The Philby Files: The Secret Life of the Master SpyKGB Archives Revealed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1994.
◘ Boyle, Andrew. The Climate of Treason. London: Hutchinson, 1979.
◘ Brooks-Shepherd, Gordon. The Storm Petrels. London: Jonathan Cape, 1984.
◘ ———. The Storm Birds. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988.
◘ Bower, Tom. Red Web: MI6 and the KGB Master Coup. London: Aurum, 1989.
◘ Brown, Anthony Cave. “C”: The Secret Life of Sir Stewart Menzies. London: Macmillan, 1987.
◘ ———. Treason in the Blood. London: Michael Joseph, 1996.
◘ Cairncross, John. The Enigma Spy. London: Century, 1997.
◘ Carter, Miranda. Anthony Blunt: His Lives. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.
◘ Costello, John. Mask of Treachery. New York: Collins, 1998.
◘ Elliott, Nicholas. With My Little Eye. London: Michael Russell, 1993.
◘ Friedman, Richard. “A Stone for Willy Fisher.” Studies in Intelligence. Special edition (Fall 2000).
◘ Hamrick, S. J. Deceiving the Deceivers: Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, and Guy Burgess. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2004.
◘ Knightley, Phillip. The Master Spy: The Story of Kim Philby. New York: Vantage, 1988.
◘ Modin, Yuri. My Five Cambridge Friends. London: Headline, 1994.
◘ Page, B. D., and P. Knightley. Philby: The Spy Who Betrayed a Generation. London: Deutsch, 1968.
◘ Philby, Kim. My Silent War. London: MacGibbon and Key, 1968.
◘ Poretsky, Elizabeth. Our Own People. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.
◘ Seale, Patrick, and Maureen McConville. Philby: The Long Road to Moscow. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1973.
◘ Sobolyeva, Tatyana A. “Some Incidents in the 1930’s.” Trans. Thomas R. Hammant. Cryptologia 25, no. 1 (2001).
◘ Tanenhaus, Sam. Whittaker Chambers. New York: Random House, 1997.
◘ Trevor-Roper, Hugh. The Philby Affair. London: William Kimber, 1968.
◘ West, Nigel, and Oleg Tsarev. The Crown Jewels: The British Secrets at the Heart of the KGB Archives. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
◘ Wolton, Thierry. Le grand recruitment. Paris: Grosset, 1993.
Soviet Operations in Asia and Australia, 1920s-1950s
◘ Ball, Desmond, and David Horner. Breaking the Codes: Australia’s KGB Network. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen and Unwin, 1998.
◘ Johnson, Chalmers. An Instance of Treason: Ozaki Hotsumi and the Sorge Spy Ring. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1990.
◘ McKnight, David. Australia’s Spies and Their Secrets. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen and Unwin, 1994.
◘ ———. “The Moscow-Canberra Cables: How Soviet Intelligence Obtained British Secrets through the Back Door.” Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 2 (1998).
◘ Wasserstein, Bernard. Secret War in Shanghai. New York: Houghton Miflin, 1999.
Soviet Intelligence and Nuclear Weapons
◘ Albright, Joseph, and Marcia Kunstel. Bombshell: The Secret Story of Ted Hall and America’s Unknown Atomic Spy Conspiracy. New York: Times Books, 1997.
◘ Chikov, Valdimir, and Gary Kern. KGB File 13676: Stalin’s Atomic Spies. Paris: Robert Laffront/Fixot, 1996.
◘ “Documents on Soviet Espionage and the Bomb.” Cold War International History Project Bulletin no. 4 (1994).
◘ Feklisov, Alexander. The Man behind the Rosenbergs. New York: Enigma, 2001.
◘ Holloway, David. Stalin and the Bomb. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994.
◘ ———. “How the Bomb Saved Soviet Physics.” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, January/February 1994.
◘ Lowenhaupt, Henry S. “On the Soviet Nuclear Scent.” Studies in Intelligence. Special edition (Fall 2004).
◘ Rhodes, Richard. Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
◘ ———. The Making of the Atom Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.
◘ Roberts, Sam. The Brother. New York: Random House, 2001.
◘ Sobell, Morton. On Doing Time. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1974.
VENONA: Soviet Espionage and the American Response. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 1996.
◘ West, Nigel. VENONA: The Greatest Secret of the Cold War. London: Harper-Collins, 1999.
◘ ———. Mortal Crimes: The Greatest Theft in History: The Soviet Penetration of the Manhattan Project. New York: Enigma, 2004.
◘ Williams, Robert Chadwell. Klaus Fuchs, Atomic Spy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987.
Soviet Intelligence in the United States and Canada, 1920s-1950s
◘ Bentley, Elizabeth. Out of Bondage. New York: Ballantine, 1988.
◘ Bothwell, Robert, and Granastein, J. L. The Gouzenko Transcripts. Toronto: Deneau, 1982.
◘ Budenz, Louis. This Is My Story. New York: McGraw Hill, 1947.
◘ Canadian Royal Commission. Defection of Igor Gouzenko. Ottawa: HMSO, 1948.
◘ Chambers, Whittaker. Witness. New York: Random House, 1952.
◘ Craig, R. Bruce. Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.
◘ Dainsher, Igor, and Geoffrey Elliott. Kitty Harris: The Spy with Seventeen Names. London: St. Ermin’s, 2001.
◘ Davis, Hope Hale. Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s. Royalton, Vt.: Sternforth, 1994.
◘ Donovan, James. Strangers on a Bridge: The Case of Colonel Abel. London: Secker and Warburg, 1964.
◘ Haynes, John Earl, and Harvey Klehr. VENONA: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
◘ ———. The Soviet World of American Communism. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998.
◘ ———. “The Cold War Debate Continues: A Traditionalist View of Historical Writing on Domestic Communism and Anti-Communism.” Journal of Cold War Studies 2 (Winter 2000).
◘ Hook, Sidney. Out of Step: An Unquiet Life in the 20th Century. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1986.
◘ Kerschner, Donald S. Cold War Exile: The Untold Story of Maurice Halperin. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1995.
◘ Kessler, Lauren. Clever Girl: Elizabeth Bentley, the Spy Who Ushered in the McCarthy Era. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.
◘ Klehr, Harvey, and Ronald Radosch. The Amerasia Spy Case: Prelude to Mc-Carthyism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
◘ Koch, Stephen. Double Lives. New York: Free Press, 1994.
◘ Lamphere, Robert. The FBI-KGB War. New York: Random House, 1986.
◘ Mitchell, Marcia, and Tom Mitchell. The Spy Who Seduced America: Lies and Betrayal in the Heart of the Cold WarThe Judith Coplon Story. New York: Invisible Cities, 2002.
◘ Newton, Verne. The Cambridge Spies: The Untold Story of Maclean, Philby, and Burgess in the United States. New York: Madison, 1991.
◘ Olmsted, Kathryn S. Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
◘ Radosh, Ronald, and Joyce Milton. The Rosenberg File. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1983.
◘ Romerstein, Herbert, and Eric Breindel. The VENONA Secret: Exposing Soviet Espionage and American Traitors. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 2000.
◘ Romerstein, Herbert, and Stanislav Levchenko. The KGB against theMain Enemy.” Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1989.
◘ Sawatsky, John. Gouzenko: The Untold Story. New York: Macmillan, 1984.
◘ Schecter, Jerrold, and Leona Schecter. Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 2002.
◘ Shipley, Katherine A. S. Red Spies in America. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.
◘ Tanenhaus, Samuel. Whittaker Chambers: A Biography. New York: Random House, 1997.
◘ Weinstein, Allen. Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case. New York: Random House, 1978.
◘ Weinstein, Allen, and Alexander Vassiliev. The Haunted Woods: Soviet Espionage in AmericaThe Stalin Era. New York: Random House, 1999.
◘ White, G. Edward. Alger Hiss’s Looking Glass War: The Covert Life of a Russian Spy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR
◘ Beevor, Anthony. The Mystery of Anna Chekhova. New York: Viking, 2004.
◘ Bezymenski, Lev. The Death of Adolf Hitler: Unknown Documents from the Soviet Archives. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1968.
◘ ———. Operatsiya mif (Operation Myth). Moscow: Mezduraodnaya Otnasheniya, 1995.
◘ Brysac, Shareen Blair. Resisting Hitler: Mildred Harnack and the Red Orchestra. London: Oxford University Press, 2000.
◘ Central Intelligence Agency. The Rote Kapelle: The CIA’s History of Soviet Intelligence and Espionage Networks in Western Europe, 19361945. Washington, D.C.: University Publications of America, 1984.
◘ Deakin, F. W., and G. M. Storry. The Case of Richard Sorge. New York: Harper, 1966.
◘ Dementyeva, I. A., N. I. Agayants, and Y. Y. Yakovlev. Tovarishch Zorge (Comrade Sorge). Moscow: Sovetskaya Rossiya, 1965.
◘ Erickson, John. The Soviet High Command. London: St. Martin’s, 1962.
◘ ———. The Road to Stalingrad. New York: Harper and Row, 1975.
◘ ———. The Road to Berlin. London: Nicolson, 1983.
◘ Foote, Alexander. Handbook for Spies. London: Museum Press, 1949.
◘ Fugate, Bryan. Operation Barbarossa: Strategy and Tactics on the Eastern Front, 1941. Novato, Calif: Presidio, 1984.
◘ Garlinski, Jozef. The Swiss Corridor: Espionage Networks in Switzerland during World War II. London: Dent, 1981.
◘ Gehlen, Richard. The Service. New York: World, 1972.
◘ Gisevius, Hans Bernd. To the Bitter End. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1947.
◘ Glantz, David M. Soviet Military Intelligence in War. London: Frank Cass, 1990.
◘ ———. Colossus Reborn: The Red Army at War, 19411943. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005.
◘ ———. Kharkov: Anatomy of a Military Distaster. Rockville Centre, N.Y.: Sarpedon, 1998.
◘ ———. Soviet Military Deception in the Second World War. London: Frank Cass, 1989.
◘ Glees, Anthony. The Secrets of the Service. London: Jonathan Cape, 1987.
◘ Karner, Stephan. Gulag GUPVI (The Gulag of the Chief Directorate for Prisoners of War and Internees). Moscow: RGGU, 2002.
◘ Khristoforov, V. S., et al. “Smersh”: Istorichickie ocherki i arkhivnie dokumenti (“Smersh”: Historical Outline and Archival Documents). Moscow: Izdatelstvo Gravarkhiv, 2003.
◘ Kuznetsov, I. I. “Stalin’s Minister V. S. Abakumov, 1908–1954.” Journal of Slavic Military Studies 12 (March 1990).
◘ Naumov, V. P., ed. 1941 god. Dokument, kniga pervaya (The Year 1941: Documents, Book One). Moscow: Mezhdunarodny Fond “Demokratiya,” 1988.
◘ Paul, Allan. Katyn: The Untold Story of Stalin’s Polish Massacre. New York: Scribner’s, 1991.
◘ “Perepiska V. A. Molotova s I. V. Stalinym. Noyabr 1940 goda” (Corresponence of V. M. Molotov with I. V. Stalin. November 1940). Voenno-istoricheskiy zhurnal 9 (1978).
◘ Perrault, G. The Red Orchestra. London: Barker, 1968.
◘ Prange, Gordon. Target Tokyo: The Story of the Sorge Spy Ring. New York: McGraw Hill, 1984.
◘ Roloff, Stefan. Die Rote Kapelle. Munich: Olsten, 2004.
◘ Shtemenko, S. M. Generalnyi shtab v gody voiny (The General Staff in the Years of the War). Moscow: Voenizdat, 1973.
◘ Smith, Bradly. Sharing Secrets with Stalin. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas , 1996.
◘ Stephan, Robert W. Stalin’s Secret War: Soviet Counterintelligence against the Nazis. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.
◘ Thomas, David. “Foreign Armies East and German Military Intelligence in Russia, 1941–1945.” Journal of Contemporary History 22 (1987).
◘ Tolstoy, Nikolay. Victims of Yalta. New York: Hutchinson, 1988.
◘ Trepper, Leopold. The Great Game. New York; McGraw Hill, 1977.
◘ Watson, Peter, and Alda Petrova. The Death of Adolph Hitler: Documents from the Soviet Archives. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1993.
◘ Weeks, Albert. Stalin’s Other War: Soviet Grand Strategy, 19391941. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.
◘ Werner, Ruth. Sonya’s Report. London: Chatto and Windus, 1991.
◘ Werth, Alexander. Russia at War. New York: Dutton, 1964.
Operation Barbarossa
◘ Glantz, David M. Stumbling Colossus: The Red Army on the Eve of World War. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.
◘ Gorodetsky, Gabriel. Grand Delusion: Stalin and the German Invasion of Russia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.
◘ Murphy, David E. What Stalin Knew: The Enigma of Barbarossa. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005.
◘ Pleshakov, Constantine. Stalin’s Folly: The Tragic First Ten Days of WWII on the Eastern Front. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005.
◘ Whaley, B. Codeword Barbarossa. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1973.
◘ Yakovlev, Aleksandr N., ed. 1941 god (The Year 1941). Moscow: Mezhdunarodny Fond “Demokratiya,” 1998.
Partisan War
◘ Andrianov, V. N. Voina v tyly vraga (War in the Enemy’s Rear). Moscow: Polizdat, 1974.
◘ Andreyev, Catherine. Vlasov and the Russian Liberation Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
◘ Armstrong, John A. Soviet Partisans in World War II. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964.
◘ Browning, Christopher R. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy September 1939March 1942. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.
◘ Dallin, Alexander. German Rule in Russia, 19411945. London: Macmillan, 1957.
◘ Fischer, George. Soviet Opposition to Hitler. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1952.
◘ Grenkevich, Leonid. The Soviet Partisan Movement. London: Frank Cass, 1999.
◘ Khristoforov, V. S., et al. Lubyanka v dni bitvy za Moskvu: Materialy organov gosbezopasnosti SSSR iz tsentralnovo arkhiva FSB (Lubyanka in the Days of the Battle for Moscow: Material from the Organs of State Security USSR from the Central Archive of the FSB Russia). Moscow: Izdatelskiy Dom Zvonnitsa MG, 2002.
◘ Kovpak, S. S. Our Partisan Course. London: Hutchinson, 1947.
◘ Ponomarenko, P. K. Vsenarodnaya borba v tyly nemetsko-fashistkikh zakhvatchikov, 19411944 (All People’s Struggle in the German-Fascist Invaders’ Rear Areas, 1941–1944). Moscow: Nauka, 1985.
◘ Raach, R. C. “With Smersh in Berlin: New Light on the Incomplete History of the Fuhrer and the Vozhd.” World Affairs 154, no. 2 (1991).
◘ Reitlinger, Gerald. The House Built on Sand: The Conflicts of German Policy in Russia, 19391945. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1960.
◘ Shepher, Ben. War in the Wild East: The German Army and Soviet Partisans. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Soviet Services in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States, 1944-1953
◘ Berkhoff, Karl. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death of the Ukraine under Soviet Rule. New York: Belknap, 2004.
◘ Davis, Norman. Rising ’44: The Battle for Warsaw. New York: Viking, 2004.
◘ Djilas, Milovan. Tito: The Story from Inside. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, 1980.
◘ Gross, Jan. Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland’s Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988.
◘ Hodos, George. Show Trials: Stalinist Purges in Eastern Europe, 19481954. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1987.
◘ Krickus, Richard J. Showdown: The Lithuanian Rebellion and the Breakup of the Soviet Empire. London: Brassey’s, 1996.
◘ Leonhard, Wolfgang. Child of the Revolution. London: Collins, 1957.
◘ Paul, Allen. Katyn: The Massacre of the Seeds of Polish Insurrection. Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1996.
◘ Rosenburg, Tina. The Haunted Land: Facing Eastern Europe’s Ghosts after Communism. New York: Random House, 1995.
◘ Scheurig, Bodo. Free Germany. Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press, 1969.
◘ Toranska, Teresa. “Them”: Stalin’s Polish Puppets. New York: Harper and Row, 1986.
◘ Zawodny, J. K. Death in the Forests. South Bend, Ind.: Notre Dame University Press, 1960.
COLD WAR CRISES
◘ Arbel, David, and Ran Edelist. Western Intelligence and the Collapse of the Soviet Union, 19801990: Ten Years That Did Not Shake the World. London: Frank Cass, 2003.
◘ Beschloss, Michael R. The Crisis Years. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
◘ Central Intelligence Agency. Analysis of the Soviet Union, 19471991. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency Center for the Study of Intelligence, 2001.
◘ Darling, Arthur B. The Central Intelligence Agency: An Instrument of Government to 1950. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.
◘ Fischer, Benjamin B. A Cold War Conundrum. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1997.
◘ Frolik, Josef. The Frolik Defection: The Memoirs of an Agent. London: Leo Cooper, 1975.
◘ Gaiduk, I.V., et al. Kholodnaya voina: Novye podkhody, novye dokumenty (The Cold War: New Approaches, New Documents). Moscow: Otvet, 1995.
◘ Garthoff, Raymond. Détente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1994.
◘ Gates, Robert M. From the Shadows. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.
◘ Gorlizki, Yoram, and O. V. Khlevniuk. Cold Peace: Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle. London: Oxford University Press, 2004.
◘ Gribianski, Leonid, and Norman Naimark. The Establishment of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe. Boulder, Colo: Westview, 1997.
◘ Lashmar, Paul. Spy Flights of the Cold War. London: Sutton, 1996.
◘ Mark, Eduard. Revolution by Degrees: Stalin’s National Front Strategy for Europe, 19411947. Cold War International History Project. Working paper 31 (2001).
◘ Mastny, Vojtech. Russia’s Road to the Cold War: Diplomacy, Warfare, and the Politics of Communism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.
◘ Molnar, Miklos. From Bela Kun to Janos Kadar: Seventy Years of Hungarian Communism. New York: St. Martin’s, 1990.
◘ Moynihan, Daniel. Secrecy: The American Experience. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998.
◘ Parish, Scott D., and Mikhail M. Narinsky. New Evidence on the Soviet Rejection of the Marshall Plan, 1947. Cold War International History Project. Working paper 9 (1994).
◘ Pechatnov, Vladimir O. The Big Three after World War II: New Documents on Soviet Thinking about Relations with the United States and Great Britain. Cold War International History Project. Working paper 13 (1995).
◘ Rosenberg, Tina. The Haunted Land. New York: Random House, 1995.
◘ Treml, Vladimir G. “Western Analysis and the Soviet Policymaking Process.” In Watching the Bear: Essays on CIA’s Analysis of the Soviet Union, ed. Gerald K. Haines and Robert E. Leggett. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligennce Agency, Center for the Study of Intelligence, 2003.
◘ Zubok, Vladimir, and Constantine Pleshkov. Inside the Kremlin’s Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
Afghanistan
◘ Arnold, Anthony. The Fateful Pebble: Afghanistan’s Role in the Fall of the Soviet Union. Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1993.
◘ Bradsher, Henry. Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1985.
◘ “Cold War in the Third World and the Collapse of Détente.” Cold War International History Project Bulletin no. 8/9 (2001). Contains Communist Party Central Committee documents on the decision to intervene in Afghanistan, including meeting notes and memoranda.
◘ Ghaus, Abdul Samad. The Fall of Afghanistan: An Insider’s Account. Washington, D.C.: Pergamon-Brassey, 1988.
◘ Grau, Lester W. The Bear Went over the Mountain: Soviet Combat Tactics in Afghanistan. London: Frank Cass, 1998.
◘ Grau, Lester W., and Michael A. Gress. The Soviet Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002.
◘ Jalali, Ali Ahmad, and Lester W. Grau. The Other Side of the Mountain: Mujahideen Tactics in the Afghan War. Quantico, Va.: U.S. Marine Corps Staff Study, 1998.
◘ MacEachin, Douglas. Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community’s Record. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency Center for the Study of Intelligence, 2002.
◘ Mayorov, Aleksandr. Pravda Afganskoye voine (The Truth about the Afghan War). Moscow: Prava Cheloveka, 1996.
◘ Mitrokhin, Vasily. The KGB in Afghanistan. Cold War International History Project. Working paper 40 (2002).
Berlin, 1947-1989
◘ Adams, Jefferson. “The Strange Demise of East German State Security.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 1 (2005).
◘ ———. “Probing the East German State Security Archives.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 1 (2000).
◘ Ausland, John C. Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Berlin-Cuban Crisis, 19611964. Oslo: Scandanavian Press, 1996.
◘ Catudal, Honore M. Kennedy and the Berlin Wall: A Case Study in U.S. Dicisionmaking. Berlin: Verlag, 1980.
◘ Clay, Lucius. Decision in Germany. New York: Doubleday, 1950.
◘ Colitt, Leslie. Spy Master: The Real-Life Karla, His Moles, and the East German Secret Police. New York: Addison Wesley, 1995.
◘ Critchfield, James H. Parners at the Creation: The Men behind Germany’s Defense and Intelligence Establishment. Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 2004.
◘ Felfe, Heinz. Im Dienst des Gegners10 Jahr Moskau Mann im BND (In the Adversaries’ Service—10 Years as Moscow’s Man in the BND). Hamburg: Rasch und Rohring, 1986.
◘ Fischer, Ben B. “‘One of the Biggest Ears in the World’: East German SIGINT.” Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 11, no. 2 (1998).
◘ Frischauer, Willi. The Man Who Came Back: The Story of Otto John. London: Frederick Muller, 1958.
◘ Harrison, Hope M. Ulbricht and the ConcreteRose”: New Archival Evidence on Soviet-East German Relations and the Berlin Crisis, 19581962. Cold War International History Project. Working paper 5 (1993).
◘ Hertle, Hans-Hermann. “The Fall of the Wall: The Unintended Self-Dissolution of East Germany’s Ruling Regime.” Cold War International History Project Bulletin no. 12/13 (2001).
◘ Hoehne, Heinz, and Hermann Zolling. The General Was a Spy. New York: Coward, McCann, 1957.
◘ John, Otto. Twice through the Lines. New York: Harper and Row, 1972. Originally published in German as Zweimal kam ich heim (1965).
◘ Klimov, Gregory. The Terror Machine: The Inside Story of the Soviet Administration in Germany. London: Faber and Faber, 1953. Originally published in Russian in West Germany as Berlinskiy Kreml (The Berlin Kremlin). Frankfort-am-Main: Possev, 1953.
◘ Miller, Barbara. The Stasi Files Unveiled: Guilt and Compliance in a Unified Germany. London: Transaction, 1999.
◘ Murphy, David, Sergei A. Kondrashev, and George Bailey. Battle Ground Berlin: CIA vs. KGB in the Cold War. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
◘ Naimark, Norman M. ‘To Know Everything and To Report Everything Worth Knowing’: Building the East German Police State, 194549. Cold War International History Project. Working paper 10 (1998).
◘ Popplewell, Richard J. “The KGB and the Control of the Soviet Bloc: The Case of East Germany.” Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 1 (1998).
◘ Reese, Mary Ellen. General Reinhard Gehlen: The CIA Connection. Fairfax, Va.: George Mason University Press, 1990.
◘ Stafford, David. Spies beneath Berlin. New York: Overlook, 2002.
◘ Stiller, Werner, and Jefferson Adams. Beyond the Wall: Memoirs of an East and West German Spy. Washington, D.C.: Brasseys, 1992.
◘ Wolf, Markus. Man without a Face: The Autobiography of Communism’s Greatest Spymaster. New York: Times Books, 1997.
◘ Wyden, Peter. Wall: The Inside Story of a Divided Berlin. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.
◘ Zubok, Vladislav M. Khrushchev and the Berlin Crisis (195862). Cold War International History Project. Working paper 6 (1998).
Cuba, 1959-1990
◘ Allison, Graham T., and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. 2nd ed. New York: Longman, 1999.
◘ Bright, James, and David A. Welch. Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, 1988.
◘ Brugioni, Dino. Eyeball to Eyeball: The Inside Story of the Cuba Missile Crisis. New York: Random House, 1991.
◘ Central Intelligence Agency. Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995.
◘ Frankel, Max. High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Ballantine, 2004.
◘ Fursenko, Aleksandr, and Timothy Naftali. “One Hell of a Gamble”: The Secret History of the Cuban Missile CrisisKhrushchev, Castro, and Kennedy. New York: Norton, 1997.
◘ Garthoff, Raymond L. Reflections on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1989.
◘ Gribkov, Anatoli, and William Y. Smith. Operation Anadyr: U.S. and Soviet Generals Recount the Cuban Missile Crisis. Chicago: Edition Q, 1994.
◘ Huchthausen, Peter. October Fury. Hoboken, N. J.: John Wiley and Son, 2002.
◘ Penkovsky, Oleg. The Penkovsky Papers. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965.
◘ Shakhnazarov, Georgi. “Fidel Castro, Glasnost, and the Caribbean Crisis.” Cold War International History Project. Virtual Archive.
Poland, 1956-1990
◘ Garton Ash, Timothy. The Polish Revolution: Solidarity. New York: Vantage, 1985.
◘ Gluchowski, Leszek W. The Soviet-Polish Confrontation of October 1956: The Situation in the Polish Internal Security Corps. Cold War International History Project. Working paper 17 (1999).
◘ Kostrzewa, Robert, ed. Between East and West: Writings from Kultura. New York: Hill and Wang, 1990.
◘ Kremer, Mark. Top Secret Documents of Soviet Deliberation during the Polish Crisis. Cold War International History Project. Working paper 1 (1999).
◘ Kuklinski, Ryszard. “The Crushing of Solidarity.” Orbis 32, no. 1 (1998).
◘ MacEachin, Douglas. US Intelligence and the Polish Crisis, 19801981. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency Center for the Study of Intelligence, 2002.
◘ Mastny, Voytek. “The Soviet Non-Invasion of Poland in 1990–1991 and the End of the Cold War.” Europa-Asia Studies 51, no. 2 (1999).
◘ Trubnikov, Vadim. Operation Polonia, 19801981? (Operation Poland: The Years 1980–1981). Moscow: Izdatelstvo Pechati Novosti, 1983.
◘ Weiser, Benjamin. A Secret Life. New York: Public Affairs, 2004.
Prague, 1948-1990
◘ August, Frantisek, and David Rees. Red Star over Prague. London: Sherwood, 1984.
◘ Bittman, Ladislav. The Deception Game: Czechoslovak Intelligence in Soviet Political Warfare. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Research Corp., 1972.
◘ Dubcek, Alexander. Hope Dies Last: Autobiography of Alexander Dubcek. London: Kodansha, 1993.
◘ Frolik, Josef. The Frolik Defection: The Memoirs of an Agent. London: Leo Cooper, 1975.
◘ Havel, Vaclav. Open Letters: Selected Writing, 19651990. New York: Knopf, 1991.
◘ ———. Disturbing the Peace. New York: Knopf, 1990.
◘ Kusin, Vladimir V. The Intellectual Origins of the Prague Spring: The Development of Reformist Ideas in Czechoslovakia 19561967. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
◘ Matthews, John P. C. “Majales: The Abortive Student Revolt in Czechoslovakia in 1956.” Cold War International History Project. Working paper 24 (1998).
◘ “Memorandum to the Communist Party Central Committee Secretariat Prepared by the Second Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party.” Cold War International History Project Bulletin no. 11 (2002).
◘ Navratil, Jaromir. The Prague Spring ’68. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998.
◘ Sommer, Mark. Living in Freedom: The Exhilaration and Anguish of Prague’s Second Spring. San Francisco: Mercury House, 1992.
◘ Tuma, Oldrich. Srpen ’68 (August 1968). Prague: USD-Maxdorf, 1966.
◘ Valenta, Jiri. Soviet Intervention in Czechoslovakia, 1968: Anatomy of a Decision. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
THE KGB, 1954-1991
◘ Bitman, Ladislav. The KGB and Soviet Disinformation: An Insider’s View. London: Pergamon, 1972.
◘ Bobkov, F. D. KGB i vlast (KGB and the Power). Moscow: 1995.
◘ Donovan, James. Strangers on a Bridge. London: Secker and Warburg, 1964.
◘ Dunlop, John B. The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Union. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992.
◘ Dzhirkvilov, Ilya. Secret Servant. London: Collins, 1987.
◘ Epstein, Edward Jay. Deception: The Invisible War between the KGB and the CIA. New York: Allen, 1989.
◘ Garthoff, Raymond L. “The KGB Reports to Gorbachev.” Intelligence and National Security 11, no. 2 (1996).
◘ Gorbachev, Mikhail S. The August Coup. London: HarperCollins, 1991.
◘ Kalugin, Oleg. The First Directorate: My 32 Years of Intelligence and Counterintelligence against the West. New York: St. Martin’s, 1994.
◘ Kuzichkin, Vladimir. Inside the KGB: My Life in Soviet Espionage. London: Andre Deutsch, 1990.
◘ Lyubimov, Mikhail. Dekameron shpionov (Decameron of Spies). Moscow: Tsentrpoliagraf, 1998.
◘ Martin, David C. Wilderness of Mirrors. New York: Ballantine, 1981.
◘ Medvedev, Zhores. Andropov. New York: Norton, 1983.
◘ Petrov, Vladimir, and Evdokia Petrov. Empire of Fear. London: Andre Deutsch, 1956.
◘ Pringle, Robert W. “Andropov’s Counterintelligence State.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 2 (2000).
◘ Sheymov, Victor. Tower of Secrets. Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1993.
◘ Steele, Jonathan. Andropov in Power. Oxford: Martin Robertson, 1983.
◘ Trimble, Delmege. “The Defection of Otto John.” Studies in Intelligence. Special edition (Fall 2000).
◘ Zemskov, Ilya. Partiya ili Mafiya (Party or Mafia). Paris: Les Editeurs Reunis, 1976.
◘ Zubok, Vladislav M. Soviet Intelligence and the Cold War: TheSmallCommittee of Information, 195253. Cold War International History Project. Working paper 4 (1996).
The KGB Versus the Western Intelligence Services, 1954-1991
◘ Ashley, Clarence. CIA Spymasters. New York: Pelican, 2004.
◘ Barron, John. Breaking the Ring. New York: Avon, 1988.
◘ ———. Operation SOLO: The FBI’s Man in the Kremlin. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1996.
◘ Bearden, Milt, and James Risen. The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA’s Final Showdown with the KGB. New York: Random House, 2003.
◘ Blake, George. No Other Choice: An Autobiography. London: Jonathan Cape, 1990.
◘ Brennikow, Louise. Abel. New York: Ballantine, 1982.
◘ Central Intelligence Agency. Abstract of Report of Investigation: The Aldrich H. Ames Case. Washington, 21 October 1984.
◘ Chalet, Marcel, and Wolton Thierry. Les visiteurs de l’ombre. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1990.
◘ Cherkashin, Victor, and Gregory Feifer. Spy Hunter: Memoir of a KGB Officer. New York: Basic, 2004.
◘ Daniloff, Nicholas. Two Lives, One Russia. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1988.
◘ Deryabin, Peter. The Secret World. New York: Doubleday, 1959.
◘ Drozdov, Yuri. Nuzhnaya rabota (Necessary Work). Moscow: VlaDar, 1994.
◘ Earley, Pete. Confessions of a Spy: The Real Story of Aldrich Ames. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1997.
◘ ———. Family of Spies: Inside the John Walker Spy Ring. New York: Bantam, 1988.
◘ Epstein, Edward. Deception: The Invisible War between the KGB and the CIA. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.
◘ Gordievsky, Oleg. Next Stop Execution. London: Macmillan, 1995.
◘ Hart, John L. The CIA’s Russians. Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Navy Institute Press, 2003.
◘ Headley, Lake, and William Hoffman. The Court Martial of Clayton Lonetree. New York: Henry Holt, 1989.
◘ Heaps, Leo. Thirty Years with the KGB: The Double Life of Hugh Hambleton. London: Methuen, 1983.
◘ Helms, Richard, with William Hood. A Look over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency. New York: Random House, 2003.
◘ Herrington, Stuart. Traitors among Us. Novato, Calif.: Presidio, 1999.
◘ Hood, William. Mole. New York: Norton, 1982.
◘ Houghton, Harry. Operation Portland: The Autobiography of a Spy. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1972.
◘ Kahn, David. “Soviet Comint in the Cold War.” Cryptologia 22, no. 1 (1998).
◘ Kessler, Ronald. Escape from the CIA: How the CIA Won and Lost the Most Important Spy Ever to Defect to the U.S. New York: Scribner’s, 1991.
◘ ———. The Spy in the Russian Club. New York: Scribner’s, 1990.
◘ ———. Moscow Station: How the KGB Penetrated the American Embassy. New York Scribner’s, 1989.
◘ ———. Spy vs. Spy: Stalking Soviet Spies in America. New York: Scribner’s, 1988.
◘ Kevorkov, Vyacheslav. Tayniy kanal (Secret Channel). Moscow: Geya, 1997.
◘ Keworkow, Wjatcheslaw. Der geheime kanal: Moskau, der KGB und die bonner ostpolitik. Berlin: Rowohlt, 1995.
◘ Kholkhov, Nikolai. In the Name of Conscience. London: Frederick Muller, 1964.
◘ Krassilnikov, Rem. KGB protiv MI6 (KGB against MI6). Moscow: Tsentrpoligraf, 2000.
◘ Krotkov, Yuri. I Am from Moscow. New York: Dutton, 1967.
◘ Kuzichkin, Vladimir. Inside the KGB: Myth and Reality. London: Andre Deutsch, 1990.
◘ Levchenko, Stanislav. On the Wrong Side: My Life in the KGB. New York: Pergamon, 1988.
◘ Mangold, Tom. Cold Warrior. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.
◘ Martin, David. Wilderness of Mirrors. New York: Ballantine, 1981.
◘ Nechiporenko, Oleg. Passport to Assassination. London: Birch Lane, 1993.
◘ Powers, Thomas. The Man Who Kept the Secrets. New York: Knopf, 1979.
◘ Reed, Thomas C. At the Abyss: An Insider’s History of the Cold War. New York: Ballantine, 2004.
◘ Sakharov, Vladimir, and Umburto Tosi. High Treason. New York: Putnam, 1980.
◘ Shainberg, Maurice. Breaking from the KGB. New York: St. Martin’s, 1986.
◘ Shebarshin, Leonid. Ruka Moskvi: Zapiski nachalnika sovetskoi razvedki (The Hand of Moscow: Notes of the Chief of Soviet Intelligence). Moscow: Tsentr 100, 1992.
◘ Shvets, Yuri B. Washington Station. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.
◘ Suvorov, Victor. The Victors. Boston: Berkeley, 1985.
◘ Tarin, Oleg, and Edward Talanov. TsRU: Gosudarstveniy terrorizm SShA (CIA: American State Terrorism). Moscow: Planet, 1987.
◘ Verbitsky, Anatole, and Dick Adler. Sleeping with Moscow: The Authorized Account of the KGB’s Bungled Infiltration of the FBI by Two of the Soviet Union’s Most Unlikely Operatives. New York: Shapolsky, 1987.
◘ Vise, David A. The Bureau and the Mole. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2002.
◘ West, Nigel. Mole Hunt: Searching for Soviet Spies in MI5. New York: William A. Morrow, 1989.
◘ Whiteside, Thomas. An Agent in Place. New York: Viking, 1966.
◘ Wise, David. SPY: The Inside Story of How the FBI’s Robert Hanssen Betrayed America. New York: Random House, 2002.
◘ ———. The Spy Who Got Away: The Inside Story of Edward Howard, the CIA Agent Who Betrayed His Country’s Secrets and Escaped to Moscow. New York: Random House, 1998.
◘ ———. Molehunt: The Secret Search for Traitors That Shattered the CIA. New York: Random House, 1992.
◘ Wynne, Greville. Contact on Gorky Street. New York: Atheneum, 1968.
◘ Zubok, Vladislav M. “Spy vs. Spy: The KGB vs. the CIA, 1960–1962.” Cold War International History Project Bulletin no. 4 (1994).
The KGB and Human Rights: The Dissidents
◘ Alexeyeva, Ludmilla, and Paul Goldberg. The Thaw Generation. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1990.
◘ Almarik, Andrei. Notes of a Revolutionary. New York: Knopf, 1982.
◘ ———. Involuntary Journey to Siberia. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1970.
◘ ———. Will the Soviet Union Survive until 1984. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1968.
◘ Brodsky, Joseph. Less than One. New York: Viking, 1986.
◘ Bukovsky, Vladimir. To Build a Castle: My Life as a Dissenter. New York: Viking, 1978.
◘ Garrard, John, and Carol Garrard. The Bones of Berdichev: The Life and Fate of Vasily Grossman. New York: Free Press, 1996.
◘ Grigorenko, Petro. Memoirs. New York: Norton, 1982.
◘ Hill, Kent R. The Puzzle of the Soviet Church. Portland, Ore.: Multnomah, 1989.
◘ Kopelev, Lev. No Jail for Thought. London: Secker and Warburg, 1977. Published in the United States as To Be Preserved Forever.
◘ Krasin, Viktor. Sud (The Trial.) New York: Chalidze Foundation, 1983.
◘ Labedz, Leopold, and Max Hayward. On Trial: The Case of Sinyavsky and Daniel. London: Collins Harvil, 1967.
◘ Laurie, Richard. Sakharov. Hanover, N.H.: Brandeis University Press, 2002.
◘ Plyushch, Leonid. History’s Carnival. New York: Doubleday, 1979.
◘ Reddaway, Peter, ed. and trans. Uncensored Russia: Protest and Dissent in the Soviet Union (The Unofficial Journal: A Chronicle of Current Events). New York: McGraw Hill, 1972.
◘ Reddaway, Peter, and Sidney Bloch. Russia’s Political Hospitals. London: Futura, 1978.
◘ Rubenstein, Joshua, and Alexander Gribanov, ed. The KGB File on Andrei
Sakharov. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005.
◘ Sakharov, Andrei. Memoirs. New York: Knopf, 1990.
◘ Scammel, Michael. The Solzhenitsyn Files. Chicago: Edition Q, 1995.
◘ Shentalinsky, Vitaly. KGB’s Literary Archive. London: Havill, 1995.
◘ Simis, Konstantin. USSR: The Corrupt Society. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982.
◘ Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr. The Oak and the Calf. London: Collins and Harvil, 1980.
◘ Thomas, D. M. Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life. New York: St. Martin’s, 1998.
RUSSIAN INTELLIGENCE, 1991 TO THE PRESENT
◘ Alibek, Ken, and Stephen Handelman. Biohazard. New York: Random House, 1999.
◘ Ebron, Martin. KGB: Death and Rebirth. New York: Praeger, 1994.
◘ Friedman, Robert I. Red Mafiya: How the Russian Mob Has Invaded America. Boston: Little, Bown, 2000.
◘ Gurov, Aleksandr. Krasnaya mafiya (Red Mafia). Moscow: Samozvet, 1995.
◘ Handelman, Stephen. Comrade Criminal: The Theft of the Second Russian Revolution. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995.
◘ Knight, Amy. Spies without Cloaks: The KGB Successors. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994.
◘ ———. “The Enduring Legacy of the KGB in Russian Politics.” Problems of Communism 47 (July/August 2000).
◘ ———. “The Two Worlds of Vladimir Putin.” Wilson Quarterly 24, no. 2 (2000).
◘ Korzhakov, Aleksandr. Ot rasveta do zakata (From Dawn to Dusk). Moscow: Interbuk, 1997.
◘ Laqueur, Walter. Black Hundreds: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
◘ Odom, William E. The Collapse of the Soviet Military. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998.
◘ Pringle, Robert W. “The Heritage and Future of the Soviet Intelligence Community.” In Strategic Intelligence, ed. Jim Wirtz and Loch Johnson. Los Angeles:
◘ Roxbury Press, 2004. Previously published in International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 11, no. 2 (1998).
◘ Putin, Vladimir. Ot pervovo litsa: Razgovory s Vladimirom Putinym (First Person: Conversations with Vladimir Putin). Moscow: Vagrius, 2000.
◘ Solnick, Steven L. Stealing the State: Control and Collapse in Soviet Institutions. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997.
◘ Stepankov, Valentin, and Yevgeni Lisov. Kremlevskiy zagovor (The Kremlin Plot). Moscow: Ogonek, 1992.
◘ Timofeyev, Lev. Russia’s Secret Rulers. New York: Knopf, 1992.
◘ Vaksberg, Arkady. The Soviet Mafia. New York: St. Martin’s, 1991.
◘ Waller, J. Michael. KGB in Russia Today. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1994.

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  • Bibliography — (from Greek gr. βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia , literally book writing ), as a practice, is the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek gr. λογία, logia ). On the whole,… …   Wikipedia

  • Bibliography — Bib li*og ra*phy (b[i^]b l[i^]*[o^]g r[.a]*f[y^]) n.; pl. {Bibliographies}. [Gr. bibliografi a: cf. F. bibliographie.] 1. a history or description of books and manuscripts, with notices of the different editions, the times when they were printed …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • bibliography — 1670s, the writing of books, from Gk. bibliographia the writing of books, from BIBLIO (Cf. biblio ) + graphos (something) drawn or written. Sense of a list of books that form the literature of a subject is first attested 1869. Related:… …   Etymology dictionary

  • bibliography — ► NOUN (pl. bibliographies) 1) a list of books or documents on a particular subject or by a particular author. 2) the study of books in terms of their classification, printing, and publication. 3) a list of the books referred to in a scholarly… …   English terms dictionary

  • bibliography — [bib΄lē äg′rə fē] n. pl. bibliographies [Gr bibliographia: see BIBLIO & GRAPHY] 1. the study of the editions, dates, authorship, etc. of books and other writings 2. a book containing such information 3. a list of sources of information on a given …   English World dictionary

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY — As in general bibliography, the development of Hebrew bibliography is characterized by the transition from brief listings to more detailed catalogues. The listing of the books of the Bible which appears in the Talmud (BB 14b, 15a) had as its… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • bibliography — bibliographic /bib lee euh graf ik/, bibliographical, adj. bibliographically, adv. /bib lee og reuh fee/, n., pl. bibliographies. 1. a complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common principle, as authorship, subject, place of… …   Universalium

  • Bibliography —    Internet Sites    Dictionaries and Bibliographies of Sacred Music    Biographies of musicians    Bibliography: Byzantine and Orthodox    Discographies    Important collections of music    INTRODUCTION    Because the entri …   Historical dictionary of sacred music

  • Bibliography —  INTRODUCTION  ■ The chief problem in compiling a bibliography on Marxism is the sheer volume of sources. The literature produced by and about Marxists, Marxist organizations, movements and regimes is vast. This abundance of material testifies to …   Historical dictionary of Marxism

  • Bibliography —   INTRODUCTION   The imposing number of books and articles that have been published in recent years about the Holocaust has made it necessary to prioritize the literature in regard to significance. As a consequence, a bibliography of the… …   Historical dictionary of the Holocaust

  • Bibliography —    I. INTRODUCTION    The bibliography is arranged by classes and subclasses. With very few exceptions, only works published after 1945 have been included. For historical works, one should consult George Black s A Gypsy Bibliography (Edinburgh:… …   Historical dictionary of the Gypsies


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